Any type of depression can make you feel sad and keep you from enjoying life. However, atypical depression — also called depression with atypical features — means that your depressed mood can brighten in response to positive events. Other key symptoms include increased appetite, sleeping too much, feeling that your arms or legs are heavy, and feeling rejected.
Despite its name, atypical depression is not uncommon or unusual. It can affect how you feel, think and behave, and it can lead to emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn’t worth living.
Treatment for atypical depression includes medication, talk therapy (psychotherapy) and lifestyle changes.
Symptoms of atypical depression can vary from person to person. Key signs and symptoms may include:
• Depression that temporarily lifts in response to good news or positive events
• Increased appetite or weight gain
• Sleeping too much but still feeling sleepy in the daytime
• Heavy, leaden feeling in your arms or legs that lasts an hour or more in a day
• Sensitivity to rejection or criticism, which affects your relationships, social life or job
For some people, signs and symptoms of atypical depression can be severe, such as feeling suicidal or not being able to do basic day-to-day activities.
When to get emergency help
If you think you may hurt yourself or attempt suicide, call 911 or your local emergency number immediately.
Also consider these options if you’re having suicidal thoughts:
• Call your mental health professional.
• Call a suicide hotline. In the U.S., call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255) or use their webchat on suicidepreventionlifeline.org/chat.
• Seek help from your primary doctor or other health care provider.
• Reach out to a close friend or loved one.
• Contact a minister, spiritual leader or someone else in your faith community.
If a loved one or friend is in danger of attempting suicide or has made an attempt:
• Make sure someone stays with that person.
• Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately.
• Or, if you can do so safely, take the person to the nearest hospital emergency room.
It’s not known exactly what causes atypical depression or why some people have different features of depression. Atypical depression often starts in the teenage years, earlier than other types of depression, and can have a more long-term (chronic) course.
As with other types of depression, a combination of factors may be involved. These include:
• Brain differences. Neurotransmitters are naturally occurring brain chemicals that carry signals to other parts of your brain and body. When these chemicals are abnormal or impaired, the function of nerve receptors and nerve systems change, leading to depression.
• Inherited traits. Depression is more common in people whose blood relatives also have the condition.
Risk factors for atypical depression may include:
• History of bipolar disorder
• Misuse of alcohol or recreational drugs
• Traumatic childhood experiences
• Environmental stressors
Your risk of atypical depression may also increase if you have:
• Blood relatives with a history of depression, bipolar disorder or alcoholism
• Stressful life events, such as the death of a loved one
Like other types of depression, atypical depression is a serious illness that can cause major problems. Atypical depression can result in emotional, behavioral and health problems that affect every area of your life.
For example, atypical depression can be associated with:
• Weight gain due to an increased appetite
• Personal and work relationship problems due to rejection sensitivity
• Drug or alcohol use due to trouble coping
• Other mental health disorders such as anxiety
• Suicide from feelings of depression
There’s no sure way to prevent atypical depression, but these strategies may help.
• Take steps to control stress, to increase your resilience and to boost your self-esteem.
• Reach out to family and friends, especially in times of crisis, to help you weather rough spells.
• Get treatment at the earliest sign of a problem to help prevent depression from worsening.
• Consider long-term maintenance treatment to help prevent a relapse of symptoms.
Sources: The Mayo Clinic, McLean Hospital, NAMI