The Torah

Traditionally, the Torah has been seen either as a document that was entirely revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai (along with the whole of the Oral Torah, i.e. the Mishnah and other works of Rabbinic literature which build upon the written Torah) or that Moses completed the Torah during the trek through the wilderness (including what was revealed on Mount Sinai). Historians and literary critics, noting historical inaccuracies and duplications that indicate a composite text have suggested that the Torah includes sources from the period of King David and King Solomon (around 1000 BCE), from the seventh century BCE during the reign of King Josiah, and from the sixth century BCE during the Babylonian exile.

For Jews, the concept of “Torah ” is much broader than the books themselves, the delimited concept of the Torah. “Torah” can refer to all of traditional Jewish learning, but “the Torah” usually refers to the Torah she’bi’ktav, the written Torah, also known as the chumash (the five volumes or Pentateuch, sometimes referred to as the Five Books of Moses).

The Torah, Prophets (Nevi’im) and the Writings (Ketuvim) collectively make up The Hebrew Bible (what Christians refer to as the Old Testament). The Bible is often referred to by the Hebrew acronym TaNaKh (usually spelled Tanakh, or Tanach ). Numerous editions and translations of the Bible and the Chumash (the text of the Torah) can be purchased online. However, you can also read (and search) the entire Bible (along with many other major Jewish texts) in Hebrew and English translation free of charge on Sefaria.

Readings from the Torah, which are divided into 54 weekly Torah portions are the centerpiece of the Sabbath morning service. During the Torah service, the Torah scroll is taken out and the weekly portion chanted or read aloud. The Torah scroll, also known as a sefer Torah, is hand-written on parchment according to numerous specifications by a sofer (scribe), a specially trained individual.

The Torah’s stories, laws and poetry stand at the center of Jewish culture. They chronicle God’s creation of the world, the selection and growth of the family of Abraham and Sarah in relationship to God in the land of Canaan, the exile and redemption from Egypt of that “family-become-nation” known as Israel, and their travels through the desert until they return to the land of Canaan. Along the way, Israel enters into a covenanted relationship with God, and God reveals many of the rules for governing a just society and for establishing appropriate worship.

The English names for each of the Torah’s five book are actually Greek, and like the Rabbinic names for the books, they describe the contents. The common names for the books come from a significant word in the beginning verses of the book. The following are the names of the five books and a brief summary of each:

Genesis (“Origins”)/Bereishit (“In the Beginning”)

Genesis tells the story of creation, Noah and the flood, and the selection of Abraham and Sarah and their family as the bearers of God’s covenant. Stories of sibling conflict and the long narratives of Jacob and his favorite son Joseph conclude with the family dwelling in Egypt.

Exodus (“The Road Out”)/Shemot (“Names”)

Exodus tells of how the family of Jacob grew and then was enslaved in Egypt. The baby Moses, born of Israelites but adopted by Pharaoh, becomes God’s prophet who, after bringing 10 plagues down upon Egypt, leads the Israelites through the Red Sea to freedom and to the revelation at Mount Sinai. The story of the Israelites worshipping the golden calf, which follows soon after the revelation at Mount Sinai, is almost obscured by lengthy materials on the building of a sanctuary (tabernacle) in the wilderness.

Leviticus (“Laws of the Levites”)/Vayikra (“And God Called”)

Leviticus deals mostly with laws of Israelite sacrificial worship. Related rules include the basis for Jewish dietary laws (kashrut) and issues of purity and impurity. The holiness code, which describes a sanctified communal life, is a highlight of the book.

Numbers (“The Census”)/Bamidbar (“In the Wilderness”)

Numbers begins with a census of the Israelites and the tribe of Levi. A group of Israelites spy out the land of Canaan; their discouraging report sends them back into the desert for an additional 38 years, during which the Israelites continue to behave badly, rebelling against the authority of Moses and his brother Aaron, and having illicit relations with Moabite women.

Deuteronomy (“Second Law”)/Devarim (“Words”)

Deuteronomy is Moses’ final message to the people of Israel before they cross over the Jordan River into Israel. Moses reminds the people of how God has redeemed the people from Egypt and of the details of the covenant between Israel and God. In stark language, Moses describes the rewards for observance of the laws of the covenant and the punishment for disobedience. Finally, Moses passes along his authority to Joshua who will lead the people into the land.

Sources: Essential Judaism, Unearthing the Bible, myjewishlearning.com, Chabad.org

How to Tie Tzitzit

How to Tie Tzitzit

1. Before you try tying tzitzit to your tallit, it is advisable to practice with twine or heavy string looped around a chair leg.

2. Although you can spin or devise your own tzitzit strands, it is easier to buy a tzitzit pack, which is available at most Hebrew bookstores.

3. There will be 16 strands in the pack–4 long ones and 12 short ones. Separate these into four groups with one long and three short in each.

4. The longer strand is called the shamash [or helper] and is the one used for the winding.

5. Even up the four strands at one end and push the group through one of the corner holes in the tallit.

6. Even up seven of the eight strands (the four being doubled) and leave the extra length of the shamash hanging to one side.

7. With four strands in one hand and the other four in the other hand, make a double knot near the edge of the material. Take the shamash and wind it around the other seven strands in a spiral–seven turns. Be sure you end the winding where you began–otherwise you may end up with 7 1/2 or 6 1/2 winds. Make another double knot at this point (four over four).

8. Spiral the shamash eight times around. Double knot. Spiral the shamash 11 times around. Double knot. Spiral the shamash 13 times around. Final double knot.

This is the common, and halakhically [according to Jewish law] precise type of tying. There are, however, two variations on this:

1.  A Sephardic tying adds another dimension to the pattern: each time the shamash is brought around, take it under the previous wind before winding it further. This will produce a curving ridge around the tzitzit. This, too, should be practiced before trying it on the tallit.

2. Although not in strict accordance with the halakhah, some tie the tzitzit with the shamash spiraling 10-5-6-5 times respectively.

Sources: Essential Judaism, myjewishlearning.com

Tzitzit

Tzitzit (tseet-tseet or TSIT-sis) are the strings, or fringes, tied to each of the four corners of a tallit, or prayer shawl. They are widely considered a reminder, not unlike a string around one’s finger, to think of God at all times.

Tzitzit fulfill the following commandment in Numbers 37, in the Torah portion called Parshat Shlah:

Speak to the Israelite people and instruct them to make for themselves fringes on the corners of their garments throughout the ages; let them attach a cord of blue to the fringe at each corner. That shall be your fringe; look at it and recall all the commandments of the LORD and observe them, so that you do not follow your heart and eyes in your lustful urge. Thus you shall be reminded to observe all My commandments and to be holy to your God.

The commandment to wear tzitzit is repeated in the V’ahavta section of the Shema prayer.

While traditional Jewish law says one must have these tzitzit on every four-cornered garment one wears, today most clothing doesn’t have corners. Instead, the tzitzit are on the prayer shawl and on a special small tallit , called a tallit katan, that some traditional Jews wear under their clothes. Some traditional Jews let the tzitzit from their tallit katan hang out, while others tuck them in.

The tzitzit are attached to the corners and knotted according to a specific pattern.

To learn how to tie tzitzit:

Tallit (Jewish Prayer Shawl)

The tallit (tall-EET) or tallis (TALL-us) is a large rectangular shawl made of wool, cotton or synthetic fibers. In each of the four corners of the shawl are strings tied in a particular pattern, called tzitzit. The origin of the tzitzit is biblical; the practice is prescribed in Numbers 15. The precept is to put these strings on the four corners of one’s garment — in ancient tradition, with a single strand of blue as well–as a reminder of the duties and obligations of a Jew. Since we no longer wear four-cornered garments, the tallit is worn specifically to fulfill the biblical precept.

Traditionally, men wear a tallit during morning services; in non-Orthodox synagogues, many women also wear a tallit. In some Orthodox congregations, only married men wear a tallit. One may see people gathering the tzitzit in their left hand and kissing them when the paragraph from the Torah referring to them is recited.

Most synagogues have prayer shawls available for visitors to use during services. However, many people prefer to purchase their own prayer shawl. A wide variety are sold at most Judaica stores and on the Internet.

Before putting on the prayer shawl, it is customary to say the following blessing:

Watch the video below for more on how to put on tallit:

Sources: Essential Judaism, myjewishlearning.com

The Sh’ma

It is the first prayer a Jewish child learns; the last thing an observant Jew says before sleep each night; the last prayer a Jew says before death; and, in a religion noticeably devoid of statements of creed, a religion that has no catechism, it is as close as you can come to a Jewish statement of essential faith.

Sh’ma yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai ekhad.

Hear, O Israel, our God Adonai is one.

This is the part of the prayer that almost every Jew knows but, in fact, there is considerably more to it than that one sentence, important though that sentence is. In fact, the Sh’ma is three paragraphs long, including not only this essential statement of God’s uniqueness but also sections of Deuteronomy (6:4–9, 11:13–21) and Numbers (15:37–41) that prescribe some of the most important elements of Jewish ritual, including instructions on when to recite the Sh’ma.

The full text of the prayer instructs us to recite these words “when we lie down and when we rise up,” and to wear them upon our heart and as a sign between our eyes, to inscribe them “upon doorposts of your house and upon your gates.” On the basis of these instructions, the rabbis devised the schedule of reciting the Sh’ma congregationally twice daily, at the morning and evening services, and in bed just before sleep, the idea of wearing tefillin at the morning service and placing a mezuzah on the doorways to Jewish homes (See sidebar “Mezuzah,” p. 53). In addition, the final paragraph prescribes the wearing of tzitzit, the ceremonial fringes on four-cornered garments, although Reform siddurim frequently omit that section.

The other element of the Sh’ma that amplifies its importance in Jewish theology is that the middle section, drawn from Deuteronomy 11:31–21, adds the concept of reward and punishment, a concept that is one of the cornerstones of ethical monotheism: there’s more to this than just believing in one Supreme Being; you also have to behave properly.

Given the prayer’s importance, it should come as no surprise that the rabbis ask for the utmost in concentration when it is said. Many Jews cover their eyes with their right hand while saying the opening two lines of the prayer, the better to concentrate on God’s oneness, as one prayer book has it. Maimonides writes, “One who reads the Sh’ma and does not concentrate his mind while reciting the verse ‘Hear, O Israel, our God Adonai is One,’ has not fulfilled his liturgical duty.”

The second line of the prayer,

Barukh shem k’vod malkhuto l’olam va’ed.

Blessed be the name of God’s glorious kingdom forever.

is said in an undertone except on Yom Kippur (although some Reform and Reconstructionist congregations say it aloud all year). There are several explanations for this in the rabbinic literature. Perhaps the most poetic is the notion that Moses heard the angels singing this line to God when he reached the peak of Mount Sinai; since he “stole” it from the angels, we can only recite it sotto voce until we atone for our sins on Yom Kippur and are, briefly, as pure as the angels.

Although it is usually thought of as a statement of monotheism, the Sh’ma is convincingly read as an affirmation of God’s uniqueness and unity, that the Creator is not only one and not many, but wholly Other, different from anything in the Creation. Some Hasidic thinkers go even further, suggesting that there is nothing but God, that the whole universe exists only within God.

Source: Essential Judaism.

An Assortment Of Jewish Blessings

An Assortment Of Jewish Blessings

For the observant Jew, even the most ordinary aspects of life are invested with an aura of wonder, of sanctity. Judaism includes blessings for almost anything one can experience during the day (and the rabbis believed that a Jew should offer at least a hundred b’rakhot every day). Here is a selection of blessings for a wide range of occasions and phenomena.

Before eating bread:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam ha-motzi lekhem min ha’aretz/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who brings forth bread from the earth

Before eating products of wheat, barley, rye, oats, or spelt:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam borei minei mizonot/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who creates many types of nourishment

Before drinking wine or grape juice:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam borei p’ree ha-gafen/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who creates the fruit of the vine

Before eating fruit grown on a tree:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam borei p’ree ha-eitz/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who creates the fruit of the tree

Before eating produce grown in the earth:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam borei p’ree ha-adamah/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who creates the fruit of the earth

Before eating or drinking any other foods:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam she-hakol ni-hiyeh b’dvaro/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, through Whose word everything came to be

Upon smelling fragrant shrubs, trees, or their flowers:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam borei atzei b’samim/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who creates fragrant trees

Upon seeing lightning:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam oseh ma’aseh b’reisheet/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who makes the work of Creation

Upon seeing the ocean:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam she’aseh et ha-yam ha-gadol/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who made the great sea

Upon seeing exceptionally beautiful people, trees, or fields:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam shekakhah lo ba-olamoh/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who has such in His universe

Upon seeing exceptionally strange-looking people or animals:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam mishaneh hab’riyot/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who makes the creatures different

Upon hearing unusually good news that benefits not only oneself but others:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam ha-tov v’hametiv/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, who is good and does good

Upon hearing unusually bad news:

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha’olam dayan ha-emet/Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the Universe, the true Judge

Source: Essential Judaism.

613 Mitzvot (Commandments)

The following is a brief listing of the 613 commandments (mitzvot), as recorded and classified by Maimonides in the 12th century. This listing is taken from his classic compendium of Jewish law, the “Mishneh Torah,” which contains 14 primary “books” or sections.

BOOK ONE: THE BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE

Fundamentals of Torah:

1 To know there is a God Ex. 20:2

2 Not to entertain thoughts of other gods besides Him Ex. 20:3

3 To know that He is one Deut. 6:4

4 To love Him Deut. 6:5

5 To fear Him Deut. 10:20

6 To sanctify His Name Lev. 22:32

7 Not to profane His Name Lev. 22:32

8 Not to destroy objects associated with His Name Deut. 12:4

9 To listen to the prophet speaking in His Name Deut. 18:15

10 Not to test the prophet unduly Deut. 6:16

Laws of Character

11 To emulate His ways Deut. 28:9

12 To cleave to those who know Him Deut. 10:20

13 To love Jews Lev. 19:18

14 To love converts Deut. 10:19

15 Not to hate fellow Jews Lev. 19:17

16 To reprove Lev. 19:17

17 Not to embarrass others Lev. 19:17

18 Not to oppress the weak Ex. 21:22

19 Not to speak derogatorily of others Lev. 19:16

20 Not to take revenge Lev. 19:18

21 Not to bear a grudge Lev. 19:18

Laws of Torah Study

22 To learn Torah Deut. 6:7

23 To honor those who teach and know Torah Lev. 19:32

Laws of Idolatry and Paganism

24 Not to inquire into idolatry Lev. 19:4

25 Not to follow the whims of your heart or what your eyes see Num. 15:39

26 Not to blaspheme Ex. 22:27

27 Not to worship idols in the manner they are worshiped Ex. 20:5

28 Not to worship idols in the four ways we worship God Ex. 20:5

29 Not to make an idol for yourself Ex. 20:4

30 Not to make an idol for others Lev. 19:4

31 Not to make human forms even for decorative purposes Ex. 20:20

32 Not to turn a city to idolatry Ex. 23:13

33 To burn a city that has turned to idol worship Deut. 13:17

34 Not to rebuild it as a city Deut. 13:17

35 Not to derive benefit from it Deut. 13:18

36 Not to missionize an individual to idol worship Deut. 13:12

37 Not to love the missionary Deut. 13:9

38 Not to cease hating the missionary Deut. 13:9

39 Not to save the missionary Deut. 13:9

40 Not to say anything in his defense Deut. 13:9

41 Not to refrain from incriminating him Deut. 13:9

42 Not to prophesize in the name of idolatry Deut. 13:14

43 Not to listen to a false prophet Deut. 13:4

44 Not to prophesize falsely in the name of God Deut. 18:20

45 Not to be afraid of killing the false prophet Deut. 18:22

46 Not to swear in the name of an idol Ex. 23:13

47 Not to perform ov (medium) Lev. 19:31

48 Not to perform yidoni (magical seer) Lev. 19:31

49 Not to pass your children through the fire to Molech Lev. 18:21

50 Not to erect a column in a public place of worship Deut. 16:22

51 Not to bow down on smooth stone Lev. 26:1

52 Not to plant a tree in the Temple courtyard Deut. 16:21

53 To destroy idols and their accessories Deut. 12:2

54 Not to derive benefit from idols and their accessories Deut. 7:26

55 Not to derive benefit from ornaments of idols Deut. 7:25

56 Not to make a covenant with idolaters Deut. 7:2

57 Not to show favor to them Deut. 7:2

58 Not to let them dwell in our land Ex. 23:33

59 Not to imitate them in customs and clothing Lev. 20:23

60 Not to be superstitious Lev. 19:26

61 Not to go into a trance to foresee events, etc. Deut. 18:10

62 Not to engage in astrology Lev. 19:26

63 Not to mutter incantations Deut. 18:11

64 Not to attempt to contact the dead Deut. 18:11

65 Not to consult the ov Deut. 18:11

66 Not to consult the yidoni Deut. 18:11

67 Not to perform acts of magic Deut. 18:10

68 Men must not shave the hair off the sides of their head Lev. 19:27

69 Men must not shave their beards with a razor Lev. 19:27

70 Men must not wear women’s clothing Deut. 22:5

71 Women must not wear men’s clothing Deut. 22:5

72 Not to tattoo the skin Lev. 19:28

73 Not to tear the skin in mourning Deut. 14:1

74 Not to make a bald spot in mourning Deut. 14:1

Laws of Repentance

75 To repent and confess wrongdoings Num. 5:7

BOOK TWO: THE BOOK OF LOVE OF GOD

Laws of Reading the Shema

76 To say the Shema twice daily Deut. 6:7

Laws of Prayer and Kohanic Blessings

77 To serve the Almighty with prayer daily Ex. 23:25

78 The Kohanim must bless the Jewish nation daily Num. 6:23

Laws of Tefillin, Mezuza and Sefer Torah

79 To wear tefillin on the head Deut. 6:8

80 To bind tefillin on the arm Deut. 6:8

81 To put a mezuzah on each door post Deut. 6:9

82 Each male must write a Sefer Torah Deut. 31:19

83 The king must have a separate Sefer Torah for himself Deut. 17:18

Laws of Tzitzit

84 To have tzitzit on four-cornered garments Num. 15:38

Laws of Blessings

85 To bless the Almighty after eating Deut. 8:10

Laws of Circumcision

86 To circumcise all males on the eighth day after their birth Lev. 12:3

BOOK THREE: THE BOOK OF SEASONS

Laws of the Sabbath

87 To rest on the seventh day Ex. 23:12

88 Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day Ex. 20:10

89 The court must not inflict punishment on Shabbat Ex. 35:3

90 Not to walk outside the city boundary on Shabbat Ex. 16:29

91 To sanctify the day with Kiddush and Havdallah Ex. 20:8

Laws of Yom Kippur Rest

92 To rest from prohibited labor Lev. 23:32

93 Not to do prohibited labor on Yom Kippur Lev. 23:32

94 To afflict yourself on Yom Kippur Lev. 16:29

95 Not to eat or drink on Yom Kippur Lev. 23:29

Laws of Festival Rest

96 To rest on the first day of Passover Lev. 23:7

97 Not to do prohibited labor on the first day of Passover Lev. 23:8

98 To rest on the seventh day of Passover Lev. 23:8

99 Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day of Passover Lev. 23:8

100 To rest on Shavuot Lev. 23:21

101 Not to do prohibited labor on Shavuot Lev. 23:21

102 To rest on Rosh Hashana Lev. 23:24

103 Not to do prohibited labor on Rosh Hashana Lev. 23:25

104 To rest on Sukkot Lev. 23:35

105 Not to do prohibited labor on Sukkot Lev. 23:35

106 To rest on Shmini Atzeret Lev. 23:36

107 Not to do prohibited labor on Shmini Atzeret Lev. 23:36

Laws of Chometz and Matzah

108 Not to eat chametz on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nissan Deut. 16:3

109 To destroy all chametz on 14th day of Nissan Ex. 12:15

110 Not to eat chametz all seven days of Passover Ex. 13:3

111 Not to eat mixtures containing chametz all seven days of Passover Ex. 12:20

112 Not to see chametz in your domain seven days Ex. 13:7

113 Not to find chametz in your domain seven days Ex. 12:19

114 To eat matzah on the first night of Passover Ex. 12:18

115 To relate the exodus from Egypt on that night Ex. 13:8

Laws of Shofar, Sukkah, Lulav

116 To hear the Shofar on the first day of Tishrei (Rosh Hashana) Num. 29:1

117 To dwell in a Sukkah for the seven days of Sukkot Lev. 23:42

118 To take up a Lulav and Etrog all seven days Lev. 23:40

Laws of Shekalim

119 Each man must give a half shekel annually Ex. 30:13

Laws of Sanctification of Months

120 Courts must calculate to determine when a new month begins Ex. 12:2

Laws of Fasts

121 To afflict and cry out before God in times of catastrophe Num. 10:9

BOOK FOUR: THE BOOK OF WOMEN

Laws of Marriage

122 To marry a wife by means of ketubah and kiddushin Deut. 22:13

123 Not to have relations with women not thus married Deut. 23:18

124 Not to withhold food, clothing, and relations from your wife Ex. 21:10

125 To have children with one’s wife Gen 1:28

Laws of Divorce

126 To issue a divorce by means of a “get” document Deut. 24:1

127 A man must not remarry his wife after she has married someone else Deut. 24:4

Laws of Yivum and Chalitzah (Levirate Marriage)

128 To do yibum (marry childless brother’s widow) Deut. 25:5

129 To do chalitzah (freeing a widow from yibum) Deut. 25:9

130 The widow must not remarry until the ties with her brother-in-law

are removed Deut. 25:5

Laws of Women

131 The court must fine one who seduces a maiden Ex. 22:15-16

132 The rapist must marry the maiden (if she chooses) Deut. 22:29

133 He is not allowed to divorce her Deut. 22:29

134 The slanderer must remain married to his wife Deut. 22:19

135 He must not divorce her Deut. 22:19

Laws of Sotah (Suspect Wife)

136 To fulfill the laws of the Sotah Num. 5:30

137 Not to put oil on her meal offering Num. 5:15

138 Not to put frankincense on her meal offering Num. 5:15

BOOK FIVE: THE BOOK OF HOLINESS

Laws of Forbidden Relations

139 Not to have relations with your mother Lev. 18:7

140 Not to have relations with your father’s wife Lev. 18:8

141 Not to have relations with your sister Lev. 18:9

142 Not to have relations with your father’s wife’s daughter Lev. 18:11

143 Not to have relations with your son’s daughter Lev. 18:10

144 Not to have relations with your daughter Lev. 18:10

145 Not to have relations with your daughter’s daughter Lev. 18:10

146 Not to have relations with a woman and her daughter Lev. 18:17

147 Not to have relations with a woman and her son’s daughter Lev. 18:17

148 Not to have relations with a woman and her daughter’s daughter Lev. 18:17

149 Not to have relations with your father’s sister Lev. 18:12

150 Not to have relations with your mother’s sister Lev. 18:13

151 Not to have relations with your father’s brother’s wife Lev. 18:14

152 Not to have relations with your son’s wife Lev. 18:15

153 Not to have relations with your brother’s wife Lev. 18:16

154 Not to have relations with your wife’s sister Lev. 18:18

155 A man must not have relations with a beast Lev. 18:23

156 A woman must not have relations with a beast Lev. 18:23

157 Not to have homosexual relations Lev. 18:22

158 Not to have homosexual relations with your father Lev. 18:7

159 Not to have homosexual relations with your father’s brother Lev. 18:14

160 Not to have relations with a married woman Lev. 18:20

161 Not to have relations with a menstrually impure woman Lev. 18:19

162 Not to marry non-Jews Deut. 7:3

163 Not to let Moabite and Ammonite males marry into the Jewish people Deut. 23:4

164 Don’t keep a third generation Egyptian convert from marrying

into the Jewish people Deut. 23:8-9

165 Not to refrain from marrying a third generation

Edomite convert Deut. 23:8-9

166 Not to let a mamzer marry into the Jewish people Deut. 23:3

167 Not to let a eunuch marry into the Jewish people Deut. 23:2

168 Not to castrate any male (including animals) Lev. 22:24

169 The High Priest must not marry a widow Lev. 21:14

170 The High Priest must not have relations with a widow even outside of marriage Lev. 21:15

171 The High Priest must marry a virgin maiden Lev. 21:13

172 A Kohen must not marry a divorcee Lev. 21:7

173 A Kohen must not marry a zonah (a woman who had forbidden relations) Lev. 21:7

174 A priest must not marry a chalalah (party to or product of 169-172) Lev. 21:7

175 Not to make pleasurable contact with any forbidden woman Lev. 18:6

Laws of Forbidden Foods

176 To examine the signs of animals to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher Lev. 11:2

177 To examine the signs of fowl to distinguish between kosher

and non-kosher Deut. 14:11

178 To examine the signs of fish to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher Lev. 11:9

179 To examine the signs of locusts to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher Lev. 11:21

180 Not to eat non-kosher animals Lev. 11:4

181 Not to eat non-kosher fowl Lev. 11:13

182 Not to eat non-kosher fish Lev. 11:11

183 Not to eat non-kosher flying insects Deut. 14:19

184 Not to eat non-kosher creatures that crawl on land Lev. 11:41

185 Not to eat non-kosher maggots Lev. 11:44

186 Not to eat worms found in fruit on the ground Lev. 11:42

187 Not to eat creatures that live in water other than fish Lev. 11:43

188 Not to eat the meat of an animal that died without ritual slaughter Deut. 14:21

189 Not to benefit from an ox condemned to be stoned Ex. 21:28

190 Not to eat meat of an animal that was mortally wounded Ex. 22:30

191 Not to eat a limb torn off a living creature Deut 12:23

192 Not to eat blood Lev. 3:17

193 Not to eat certain fats of clean animals Lev. 3:17

194 Not to eat the sinew of the thigh Gen. 32:33

195 Not to eat meat and milk cooked together Ex. 23:19

196 Not to cook meat and milk together Ex. 34:26

197 Not to eat bread from new grain before the Omer Lev. 23:14

198 Not to eat parched grains from new grain before the Omer Lev. 23:14

199 Not to eat ripened grains from new grain before the Omer Lev. 23:14

200 Not to eat fruit of a tree during its first three years Lev. 19:23

201 Not to eat diverse seeds planted in a vineyard Deut. 22:9

202 Not to eat untithed fruits Lev. 22:15

203 Not to drink wine poured in service to idols Deut. 32:38

Laws of Slaughtering

204 To ritually slaughter an animal before eating it Deut. 12:21

205 Not to slaughter an animal and its offspring on the same day Lev. 22:28

206 To cover the blood (of a slaughtered beast or fowl) with earth Lev. 17:13

207 Not to take the mother bird from her children Deut. 22:6

208 To release the mother bird if she was taken from the nest Deut. 22:7

BOOK SIX: THE BOOK OF OATHS

Laws of Oaths

209 Not to swear falsely in God’s Name Lev. 19:12

210 Not to take God’s Name in vain Ex. 20:7

211 Not to deny possession of something entrusted to you Lev. 19:11

212 Not to swear in denial of a monetary claim Lev. 19:11

213 To swear in God’s Name to confirm the truth when deemed necessary by court Deut. 10:20

Laws of Vows

214 To fulfill what was uttered and to do what was avowed Deut. 23:24

215 Not to break oaths or vows Num. 30:3

216 For oaths and vows annulled, there are the laws of

annulling vows explicit in the Torah Num. 30:3

Laws of The Nazir

217 The Nazir must let his hair grow Num. 6:5

218 He must not cut his hair Num. 6:5

219 He must not drink wine, wine mixtures, or wine vinegar Num. 6:3

220 He must not eat fresh grapes Num. 6:3

221 He must not eat raisins Num. 6:3

222 He must not eat grape seeds Num. 6:4

223 He must not eat grape skins Num. 6:4

224 He must not be under the same roof as a corpse Num. 6:6

225 He must not come into contact with the dead Num. 6:7

226 He must shave after bringing sacrifices upon

completion of his Nazirite period Num. 6:9

Laws of Estimated Values and Vows

227 To estimate the value of people as determined by the Torah Lev. 27:2

228 To estimate the value of consecrated animals Lev. 27:12-13

229 To estimate the value of consecrated houses Lev. 27:14

230 To estimate the value of consecrated fields Lev. 27:16

231 Carry out the laws of interdicting possessions (cherem) Lev. 27:28

232 Not to sell the cherem Lev. 27:28

233 Not to redeem the cherem Lev. 27:28

BOOK SEVEN: THE BOOK OF SEEDS

Laws of Mixed Species

234 Not to plant diverse seeds together Lev. 19:19

235 Not to plant grains or greens in a vineyard Deut. 22:9

236 Not to crossbreed animals Lev. 19:19

237 Not to work different animals together Deut. 22:10

238 Not to wear sha’atnez, a cloth woven of wool and linen Deut. 22:11

Laws of Gifts to the Poor

239 To leave a corner of the field uncut for the poor Lev. 19:10

240 Not to reap that corner Lev. 19:9

241 To leave gleanings Lev. 19:9

242 Not to gather the gleanings Lev. 19:9

243 To leave the gleanings of a vineyard Lev. 19:10

244 Not to gather the gleanings of a vineyard Lev. 19:10

245 To leave the unformed clusters of grapes Lev. 19:10

246 Not to pick the unformed clusters of grapes Lev. 19:10

247 To leave the forgotten sheaves in the field Deut. 24:19

248 Not to retrieve them Deut. 24:19

249 To separate the tithe for the poor Deut. 14:28

250 To give charity Deut. 15:8

251 Not to withhold charity from the poor Deut. 15:7

252 To set aside Trumah Gedolah (tithe for the Kohen) Deut. 18:4

253 The Levite must set aside a tenth of his tithe Num. 18:26

254 Not to preface one tithe to the next, but separate them in

their proper order Ex. 22:28

255 A non-Kohen must not eat Trumah Lev. 22:10

256 A hired worker or a Jewish bondsman of a Kohen must

not eat Trumah Lev. 22:10

257 An uncircumcised Kohen must not eat Trumah Ex.12:48

258 An impure Kohen must not eat Trumah Lev. 22:4

259 A chalalah must not eat Trumah Lev. 22:12

Laws of Ma’aser

260 To set aside Ma’aser each planting year and give it to a Levite Num. 18:24

Laws of The Second Tithe and Fourth Year Produce

261 To set aside the second tithe (Ma’aser Sheni) Deut. 14:22

262 Not to spend its redemption money on anything but

food, drink, or ointment Deut. 26:14

263 Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni while impure Deut. 26:14

264 A mourner on the first day after death must not eat Ma’aser Sheni Deut. 26:14

265 Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni grains outside Jerusalem Deut. 12:17

266 Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni wine products outside Jerusalem Deut. 12:17

267 Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni oil outside Jerusalem Deut. 12:17

268 The fourth year crops must be totally for holy

purposes like Ma’aser Sheni Lev. 19:24

269 To read the confession of tithes every fourth and seventh year Deut. 26:13

Laws of First Fruits and other Kohanic Gifts

270 To set aside the first fruits and bring them to the Temple Ex. 23:19

271 The Kohanim must not eat the first fruits outside Jerusalem Deut. 12:17

272 To read the Torah portion pertaining to their presentation Deut. 26:5

273 To set aside a portion of dough for a Kohen Num. 15:20

274 To give the shoulder, two cheeks, and stomach of slaughtered animals

to a Kohen Deut. 18:3

275 To give the first sheering of sheep to a Kohen Deut. 18:4

276 To redeem the firstborn sons and give the money to a Kohen Num. 18:15

277 To redeem the firstborn donkey by giving a lamb to a Kohen Ex. 13:13

278 To break the neck of the donkey if the owner does not intend to redeem it Ex. 13:13

Laws of The Sabbatical and Jubilee Years

279 To rest the land during the seventh year by not doing any

work which enhances growth Ex. 34:21

280 Not to work the land during the seventh year Lev. 25:4

281 Not to work with trees to produce fruit during that year Lev. 25:4

282 Not to reap crops that grow wild that year in the normal manner Lev. 25:5

283 Not to gather grapes which grow wild that year in the normal way Lev. 25:5

284 To leave free all produce which grew in that year Ex. 23:11

285 To release all loans during the seventh year Deut. 15:2

286 Not to pressure or claim from the borrower Deut. 15:2

287 Not to refrain from lending immediately before the release of

the loans for fear of monetary loss Deut. 15:9

288 The Sanhedrin must count seven groups of seven years Lev. 25:8

289 The Sanhedrin must sanctify the fiftieth year Lev. 25:10

290 To blow the Shofar on the tenth of Tishrei to free the slaves Lev. 25:9

291 Not to work the soil during the fiftieth year Lev. 25:11

292 Not to reap in the normal manner that which grows

wild in the fiftieth year Lev. 25:11

293 Not to pick grapes which grew wild in the normal

manner in the fiftieth year Lev. 25:11

294 Carry out the laws of sold family properties Lev. 25:24

295 Not to sell the land in Israel indefinitely Lev. 25:23

296 Carry out the laws of houses in walled cities Lev. 25:29

297 The Tribe of Levi must not be given a portion of the land in Israel,

rather they are given cities to dwell in Deut. 18:1

298 The Levites must not take a share in the spoils of war Deut. 18:1

299 To give the Levites cities to inhabit and their surrounding fields Num. 35:2

300 Not to sell the fields but they shall remain the Levites’ before and

after the Jubilee year Lev. 25:34

BOOK EIGHT: THE BOOK OF SERVICE

Laws of The Temple

301 To build a Sanctuary Ex. 25:8

302 Not to build the altar with stones hewn by metal Ex. 20:22

303 Not to climb steps to the altar Ex. 20:23

304 To show reverence to the Temple Lev. 1930

305 To guard the Temple area Num. 18:2

306 Not to leave the Temple unguarded Num. 18:5

Laws of Temple Vessels and Employees

307 To prepare the anointing oil Ex. 30:31

308 Not to reproduce the anointing oil Ex. 30:32

309 Not to anoint with anointing oil Ex. 30:32

310 Not to reproduce the incense formula Ex. 30:37

311 Not to burn anything on the Golden Altar besides incense Ex. 30:9

312 The Levites must transport the ark on their shoulders Num. 7:9

313 Not to remove the staves from the ark Ex. 25:15

314 The Levites must work in the Temple Num. 18:23

315 No Levite must do another’s work of either a Kohen or a Levite Num. 18:3

316 To dedicate the Kohen for service Lev. 21:8

317 The kohanic work shifts must be equal during holidays Deut. 18:6-8

318 The Kohanim must wear their priestly garments during service Ex. 28:2

319 Not to tear the priestly garments Ex. 28:32

320 The breastplate must not be loosened from the Efode Ex. 28:28

Laws of Entering the Temple

321 A Kohen must not enter the Temple intoxicated Lev. 10:9

322 A Kohen must not enter the Temple with long hair Lev. 10:6

323 A Kohen must not enter the Temple with torn clothes Lev. 10:6

324 A Kohen must not enter the Temple indiscriminately Lev. 16:2

325 A Kohen must not leave the Temple during service Lev. 10:7

326 To send the impure from the Temple Num. 5:2

327 Impure people must not enter the Temple Num. 5:3

328 Impure people must not enter the Temple Mount area Deut. 23:11

329 Impure Kohanim must not do service in the temple Lev. 22:2

330 An impure Kohen, following immersion, must wait until after sundown before returning to service Lev. 22:7

331 A Kohen must wash his hands and feet before service Ex. 30:19

332 A Kohen with a physical blemish must not enter the sanctuary or approach the altar Lev. 21:23

333 A Kohen with a physical blemish must not serve Lev.21:17

334 A Kohen with a temporary blemish must not serve Lev. 21:17

335 One who is not a Kohen must not serve Num. 18:4

Laws of Restrictions Concerning Sacrifices

336 To offer only unblemished animals Lev. 22:21

337 Not to dedicate a blemished animal for the altar Lev. 22:20

338 Not to slaughter it Lev. 22:22

339 Not to sprinkle its blood Lev. 22:24

340 Not to burn its fat Lev. 22:22

341 Not to offer a temporarily blemished animal Deut. 17:1

342 Not to sacrifice blemished animals even if offered by non-Jews Lev. 22:25

343 Not to inflict wounds upon dedicated animals Lev. 22:21

344 To redeem dedicated animals which have become disqualified Deut. 12:15

345 To offer only animals which are at least eight days old Lev. 22:27

346 Not to offer animals bought with the wages of a harlot or the

animal exchanged for a dog Deut. 23:19

347 Not to burn honey or yeast on the altar Lev. 2:11

348 To salt all sacrifices Lev. 2:13

349 Not to omit the salt from sacrifices Lev. 2:13

Laws of Sacrificial Procedure

350 Carry out the procedure of the burnt offering as prescribed in the Torah Lev. 1:3

351 Not to eat its meat Deut. 12:17

352 Carry out the procedure of the sin offering Lev. 6:18

353 Not to eat the meat of the inner sin offering Lev. 6:23

354 Not to decapitate a fowl brought as a sin offering Lev. 5:8

355 Carry out the procedure of the guilt offering Lev. 7:1

356 The Kohanim must eat the sacrificial meat in the Temple Ex. 29:33

357 The Kohanim must not eat the meat outside the Temple courtyard Deut. 12:17

358 A non-Kohen must not eat sacrificial meat Ex. 29:33

359 To follow the procedure of the peace offering Lev. 7:11

360 Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood Deut. 12:17

361 To bring meal offerings as prescribed in the Torah Lev. 2:1

362 Not to put oil on the meal offerings of wrongdoers Lev. 5:11

363 Not to put frankincense on the meal offerings of wrongdoers Lev. 5:11

364 Not to eat the meal offering of the High Priest Lev. 6:16

365 Not to bake a meal offering as leavened bread Lev. 6:10

366 The Kohanim must eat the remains of the meal offerings Lev. 6:9

367 To bring all avowed and freewill offerings to the Temple on the first subsequent festival Deut. 12:5-6

368 Not to withhold payment incurred by any vow Deut. 23:22

369 To offer all sacrifices in the Temple Deut. 12:11

370 To bring all sacrifices from outside Israel to the Temple Deut. 12:26

371 Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the courtyard Lev. 17:4

372 Not to offer any sacrifices outside the courtyard Deut. 12:13

Laws of Constant and Additional Offerings

373 To offer two lambs every day Num. 28:3

374 To light a fire on the altar every day Lev. 6:6

375 Not to extinguish this fire Lev. 6:6

376 To remove the ashes from the altar every day Lev. 6:3

377 To burn incense every day Ex 30:7

378 To light the Menorah every day Ex. 27:21

379 The Kohen Gadol must bring a meal offering every day Lev. 6:13

380 To bring two additional lambs as burnt offerings on Shabbat Num 28:9

381 To make the show bread Ex. 25:30

382 To bring additional offerings on the New Month Num. 28:11

383 To bring additional offerings on Passover Num. 28:19

384 To offer the wave offering from the meal of the new wheat Lev. 23:10

385 Each man must count the Omer – seven weeks from the day the new

wheat offering was brought Lev. 23:15

386 To bring additional offerings on Shavuot Num. 28:26

387 To bring two leaves to accompany the above sacrifice Lev. 23:17

388 To bring additional offerings on Rosh Hashana Num. 29:2

389 To bring additional offerings on Yom Kippur Num. 29:8

390 To bring additional offerings on Sukkot Num. 29:13

391 To bring additional offerings on Shmini Atzeret Num. 29:35

Laws of Disqualified Offerings

392 Not to eat sacrifices which have become unfit or blemished Deut. 14.3

393 Not to eat from sacrifices offered with improper intentions Lev. 7:18

394 Not to leave sacrifices past the time allowed for eating them Lev. 22:30

395 Not to eat from that which was left over Lev. 19:8

396 Not to eat from sacrifices which became impure Lev. 7:19

397 An impure person must not eat from sacrifices Lev. 7:20

398 To burn the leftover sacrifices Lev. 7:17

399 To burn all impure sacrifices Lev. 7:19

Laws of Yom Kippur Service

400 To follow the procedure of Yom Kippur in the sequence

prescribed in Parshat Acharei Mot Lev. 16:3

Laws of Misusing Sanctified Property

401 One who profaned property must repay what he

profaned plus a fifth and bring a sacrifice Lev. 5:16

402 Not to work consecrated animals Deut. 15:19

403 Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals Deut. 15:19

BOOK NINE: THE BOOK OF SACRIFICES

Laws of Pascal Sacrifice

404 To slaughter the paschal sacrifice at the specified time Ex. 12:6

405 Not to slaughter it while in possession of leaven Ex. 23:18

406 Not to leave the fat overnight Ex. 23:18

407 To slaughter the second paschal lamb Num. 9:11

408 To eat the paschal lamb with matzah and Marror on the night of the

15th of Nissan Ex. 12:8

409 To eat the second paschal lamb on the night of the 15th of Iyar Num.9:11

410 Not to eat the paschal meat raw or boiled Ex. 12:9

411 Not to take the paschal meat from the confines of the group Ex. 12:46

412 An apostate must not eat from it Ex.12:43

413 A permanent or temporary hired worker must not eat from it Ex. 12:45

414 An uncircumcised male must not eat from it Ex. 12:48

415 Not to break any bones from the paschal offering Ex. 12:46

416 Not to break any bones from the second paschal offering Num. 9:12

417 Not to leave any meat from the paschal offering over until morning Ex. 12:10

418 Not to leave the second paschal meat over until morning Num. 9:12

419 Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th Deut. 16:4

Laws of Pilgrim Offerings

420 To be seen at the Temple on Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot Deut. 16:16

421 To celebrate on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) Ex. 23:14

422 To rejoice on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) Deut. 16:14

423 Not to appear at the Temple without offerings Deut. 16:16

424 Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites Deut. 12:19

425 To assemble all the people on the Sukkot following the seventh year Deut. 31:12

Laws of First Born Animals

426 To set aside the firstborn animals Ex. 13:12

427 The Kohanim must not eat unblemished firstborn animals

outside Jerusalem Deut. 12:17

428 Not to redeem the firstborn Num. 18:17

429 Separate the tithe from animals Lev. 27:32

430 Not to redeem the tithe Lev. 27:33

Laws of Offerings for Unintentional Transgressions

431 Every person must bring a sin offering for his transgression Lev. 4:27

432 Bring an asham talui when uncertain of guilt Lev. 5:17-18

433 Bring an asham vadai when guilt is ascertained Lev. 5:25

434 Bring an oleh v’yored offering (if the person is wealthy, an animal; if poor, a bird or meal offering) Lev. 5:7-11

435 The Sanhedrin must bring an offering when it rules in error Lev. 4:13

Laws of Lacking Atonement

436 A woman who had a running issue must bring an offering

after she goes to the Mikveh Lev. 15:28-29

437 A woman who gave birth must bring an offering after she goes

to the Mikveh Lev. 12:6

438 A man who had a running issue must bring an offering after he goes

to the Mikveh Lev. 15:13-14

439 A metzora must bring an offering after going to the Mikveh Lev. 14:10

Laws of Substitution of Sacrifices

440 Not to substitute another beast for one set apart for sacrifice Lev. 27:10

441 The new animal, in addition to the substituted one, retains consecration Lev. 27:10

442 Not to change consecrated animals from one type of offering to another Lev. 27:26

BOOK TEN: THE BOOK OF PURITY

Laws of Impurity of Human Dead

443 Carry out the laws of impurity of the dead Num. 19:14

Laws of The Red Heifer

444 Carry out the procedure of the Red Heifer Num. 19:2

445 Carry out the laws of the sprinkling water Num. 19:21

Laws of Impurity through Tzara’at

446 Rule the laws of human tzara’at as prescribed in the Torah Lev. 13:12

447 The metzora must not remove his signs of impurity Deut. 24:8

448 The metzora must not shave signs of impurity in his hair Lev. 13:33

449 The metzora must publicize his condition by tearing his garments,

allowing his hair to grow and covering his lips Lev. 13:45

450 Carry out the prescribed rules for purifying the metzora Lev. 14:2

451 The metzora must shave off all his hair prior to purification Lev. 14:9

452 Carry out the laws of tzara’at of clothing Lev. 13:47

453 Carry out the laws of tzara’at of houses Lev. 13:34

Laws of Impurity of Reclining and Sitting

454 Observe the laws of menstrual impurity Lev. 15:19

455 Observe the laws of impurity caused by childbirth Lev. 12:2

456 Observe the laws of impurity caused by a woman’s running issue Lev. 15:25

457 Observe the laws of impurity caused by a man’s running issue Lev. 15:3

Laws of Other Sources of Impurity

458 Observe the laws of impurity caused by a dead beast Lev. 11:39

459 Observe the laws of impurity caused by the eight shratzim Lev. 11:29

460 Observe the laws of impurity of a seminal emission Lev. 15:16

Laws of Impurity of Food

461 Observe the laws of impurity concerning liquid and solid foods Lev. 11:34

Laws of Mikveh

462 Every impure person must immerse himself in a Mikveh to become pure Lev. 15:16

BOOK ELEVEN: THE BOOK OF DAMAGES

Laws of Property Damage

463 The court must judge the damages incurred by a goring ox Ex. 21:28

464 The court must judge the damages incurred by an animal eating Ex. 22:4

465 The court must judge the damages incurred by a pit Ex. 21:33

466 The court must judge the damages incurred by fire Ex. 22:5

Laws of Theft

467 Not to steal money stealthily Lev. 19:11

468 The court must implement punitive measures against the thief Ex. 21:37

469 Each individual must ensure that his scales and weights are accurate Lev. 19:36

470 Not to commit injustice with scales and weights Lev. 19:35

471 Not to possess inaccurate scales and weights even if they are not for use Deut. 25:13

472 Not to move a boundary marker to steal someone’s property Deut. 19:14

473 Not to kidnap Ex. 20:13

Laws of Robbery and Lost Objects

474 Not to rob openly Lev. 19:13

475 Not to withhold wages or fail to repay a debt Lev. 19:13

476 Not to covet and scheme to acquire another’s possession Ex. 20:14

477 Not to desire another’s possession Deut. 5:18

478 Return the robbed object or its value Lev. 5:23

479 Not to ignore a lost object Deut. 22:3

480 Return the lost object Deut. 22:1

481 The court must implement laws against the one who assaults

another or damages another’s property Ex. 21:18

Laws of Murder and Preservation of Life

482 Not to murder Ex. 20:13

483 Not to accept monetary restitution to atone for the murderer Num. 35:31

484 The court must send the accidental murderer to a city of refuge Num. 35:25

485 Not to accept monetary restitution instead of being

sent to a city of refuge Num. 35:32

486 Not to kill the murderer before he stands trial Num. 35:12

487 Save someone being pursued even by taking the life of the pursuer Deut. 25:12

488 Not to pity the pursuer Num. 35:12

489 Not to stand idly by if someone’s life is in danger Lev. 19:16

490 Designate cities of refuge and prepare routes of access Deut. 19:3

491 Break the neck of a calf by the river valley following an unsolved murder Deut. 21:4

492 Not to work nor plant that river valley Deut. 21:4

493 Not to allow pitfalls and obstacles to remain on your property Deut. 22:8

494 Make a guard rail around flat roofs Deut. 22:8

495 Not to put a stumbling block before a blind man (nor give harmful advice) Lev. 19:14

496 Help another remove the load from a beast which can

no longer carry it Ex. 23:5

497 Help others load their beast Deut. 22:4

498 Not to leave others distraught with their burdens (but to help either load or unload) Deut. 22:4

BOOK TWELVE: THE BOOK OF ACQUISITION

Laws of Sales

499 Buy and sell according to Torah law Lev. 25:14

500 Not to overcharge or underpay for an article Lev. 25:14

501 Not to insult or harm anybody with words Lev. 25:17

502 Not to cheat a sincere convert monetarily Ex. 22:20

503 Not to insult or harm a sincere convert with words Ex. 22:20

Laws of Slaves

504 Purchase a Hebrew slave in accordance with the prescribed laws Ex. 21:2

505 Not to sell him as a slave is sold Lev. 25:42

506 Not to work him oppressively Lev. 25:43

507 Not to allow a non-Jew to work him oppressively Lev. 25:53

508 Not to have him do menial slave labor Lev. 25;39

509 Give him gifts when he goes free Deut. 15:14

510 Not to send him away empty-handed Deut. 15:13

511 Redeem Jewish maidservants Ex. 21:8

512 Betroth the Jewish maidservant Ex. 21:8

513 The master must not sell his maidservant Ex. 21:8

514 Canaanite slaves must work forever unless injured in one of their limbs Lev. 25:46

515 Not to extradite a slave who fled to Israel Deut. 23:16

516 Not to wrong a slave who has come to Israel for refuge Deut. 23:16

BOOK THIRTEEN: THE BOOK OF JUDGEMENTS

Laws of Hiring

517 The courts must carry out the laws of a hired worker and hired guard Ex. 22:9

518 Pay wages on the day they were earned Deut. 24:15

519 Not to delay payment of wages past the agreed time Lev. 19:13

520 The hired worker may eat from the unharvested crops where he works Deut. 23:25

521 The worker must not eat while on hired time Deut. 23:26

522 The worker must not take more than he can eat Deut. 23:25

523 Not to muzzle an ox while plowing Deut. 25:4

Laws of Borrowing and Depositing

524 The courts must carry out the laws of a borrower Ex. 22:13

525 The courts must carry out the laws of an unpaid guard Ex. 22:6

Laws of Creditor and Debtor

526 Lend to the poor and destitute Ex. 22:24

527 Not to press them for payment if you know they don’t have it Ex. 22:24

528 Press the idolater for payment Deut. 15:3

529 The creditor must not forcibly take collateral Deut. 24:10

530 Return the collateral to the debtor when needed Deut. 24:13

531 Not to delay its return when needed Deut. 24:12

532 Not to demand collateral from a widow Deut. 24:17

533 Not to demand as collateral utensils needed for preparing food Deut. 24:6

534 Not to lend with interest Lev.25:37

535 Not to borrow with interest Deut. 23:20

536 Not to intermediate in an interest loan, guarantee, witness,

or write the promissory note Ex. 22:24

537 Lend to and borrow from idolaters with interest Deut. 23:21

Laws of Plaintiff and Defendant

538 The courts must carry out the laws of the

plaintiff, admitter, or denier Ex. 22:8

Laws of Inheritance

539 Carry out the laws of the order of inheritance Num. 27:8

BOOK FOURTEEN: THE BOOK OF JUDGES

Laws of Sanhedrin and Punishments

540 Appoint judges Deut. 16:18

541 Not to appoint judges who are not familiar with judicial procedure Deut. 1:17

542 Decide by majority in case of disagreement Ex. 23:2

543 The court must not execute through a majority of one; at least a majority of two is required Ex. 23:2

544 A judge who presented an acquittal plea must not present an

argument for conviction in capital cases Deut. 23:2

545 The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning Deut. 22:24

546 The courts must carry out the death penalty of burning Lev. 20:14

547 The courts must carry out the death penalty of the sword Ex. 21:20

548 The courts must carry out the death penalty of strangulation Lev. 20:10

549 The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry Deut. 21:22

550 Bury the executed on the day they are killed Deut.21:23

551 Not to delay burial overnight Deut. 21:23

552 The court must not let the sorcerer live Ex. 22:17

553 The court must give lashes to the wrongdoer Ex. 25:2

554 The court must not exceed the prescribed number of lashes Deut. 25:3

555 The court must not kill anybody on circumstantial evidence Ex. 23:7

556 The court must not punish anybody who was forced to do a crime Deut. 22:26

557 A judge must not pity the murderer or assaulter at the trial Deut. 19:13

558 A judge must not have mercy on the poor man at the trial Lev. 19:15

559 A judge must not respect the great man at the trial Lev. 19:15

560 A judge must not decide unjustly the case of the habitual transgressor Ex. 23;6

561 A judge must not pervert justice Lev. 19:15

562 A judge must not pervert a case involving a convert or orphan Deut. 24:17

563 Judge righteously Lev. 19:15

564 The judge must not fear a violent man in judgment Deut. 1:17

565 Judges must not accept bribes Ex. 23:8

566 Judges must not accept testimony unless both parties are present Ex. 23:1

567 Not to curse judges Ex. 22:27

568 Not to curse the head of state or leader of the Sanhedrin Ex. 22:27

569 Not to curse any upstanding Jew Lev. 19:14

Laws of Evidence

570 Anybody who knows evidence must testify in court Lev. 5:1

571 Carefully interrogate the witness Deut. 13:15

572 A witness must not serve as a judge in capital crimes Deut. 19:17

573 Not to accept testimony from a lone witness Deut. 19:15

574 Transgressors must not testify Ex. 23:1

575 Relatives of the litigants must not testify Deut. 24:16

576 Not to testify falsely Ex. 20:13

577 Punish the false witnesses as they tried to punish the defendant Deut. 19:19

Laws of Insurgents

578 Act according to the ruling of the Sanhedrin Deut. 17:11

579 Not to deviate from the word of the Sanhedrin Deut. 17:11

580 Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations Deut. 13:1

581 Not to diminish from the Torah any commandments, in whole or in part Deut. 13:1

582 Not to curse your father and mother Ex. 21:17

583 Not to strike your father and mother Ex. 21:15

584 Respect your father or mother Ex. 20:12

585 Fear your father or mother Lev. 19:3

586 Not to be a rebellious son Deut. 21:18

Laws of Mourning

587 Mourn for relatives Lev. 10:19

588 The High Priest must not defile himself for any relative Lev. 21:11

589 The High Priest must not enter under the same roof as a corpse Lev. 21:11

590 A Kohen must not defile himself for anyone except relatives Lev. 21:1

Laws of Kings and their Wars

591 Appoint a king from Israel Deut. 17:15

592 Not to appoint a convert Deut. 17:15

593 The king must not have too many wives Deut. 17:17

594 The king must not have too many horses Deut. 17:16

595 The king must not have too much silver and gold Deut. 17:17

596 Destroy the seven Canaanite nations Deut. 20:17

597 Not to let any of them remain alive Deut. 20:16

598 Wipe out the descendants of Amalek Deut. 25:19

599 Remember what Amalek did to the Jewish people Deut. 25:17

600 Not to forget Amalek’s atrocities and ambush on our journey

from Egypt in the desert Deut. 25:19

601 Not to dwell permanently in Egypt Deut. 17:16

602 Offer peace terms to the inhabitants of a city while holding siege, and treat them according to the Torah if they accept the terms Deut. 20:10

603 Not to offer peace to Ammon and Moab while besieging them Deut. 23:7

604 Not to destroy fruit trees even during the siege Deut. 20:19

605 Prepare latrines outside the camps Deut. 23:13

606 Prepare a shovel for each soldier to dig with Deut. 23:14

607 Appoint a priest to speak with the soldiers during the war Deut. 20:2

608 He who has taken a wife, built a new home, or planted a vineyard is given a year to rejoice with his possessions Deut. 24:5

609 Not to demand from the above any involvement,

communal or military Deut. 24:5

610 Not to panic and retreat during battle Deut. 20:3

611 Keep the laws of the captive woman Deut. 21:11

612 Not to sell her into slavery Deut. 21:14

613 Not to retain her for servitude after having relations with her Deut. 21:14