Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters are brain chemical messengers that help your nerve cells communicate with one another.
Different neurotransmitters attach (bind) to different receptors on nerve cells. When a neurotransmitter binds to the right receptor on a nerve cell, it triggers that cell to take a specific action. Think of it like a key in a lock.
Different neurotransmitters are associated with many physical and psychological processes in the body. For example, dopamine is involved in things like:
motivation and reward
attention, learning, and memory
sleep and dreaming
Neurotransmitters travel along neuronal pathways, which are basically long chains of nerve cells (neurons) that help different parts of the brain talk with one another.
Some pathways that appear to be associated with schizophrenia symptoms have been identified. These pathways use dopamine as their primary messenger, and include the mesolimbic pathway and the mesocortical pathway.
In 1946, the Nobel Prize-winning physicist traveled to Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, the alma mater of Langston Hughes and Thurgood Marshall and the first school in America to grant college degrees to blacks. At Lincoln, Einstein gave a speech in which he called racism “a disease of white people,” and added, “I do not intend to be quiet about it.” He also received an honorary degree and gave a lecture on relativity to Lincoln students.
The reason Einstein’s visit to Lincoln is not better known is that it was virtually ignored by the mainstream press, which regularly covered Einstein’s speeches and activities. (Only the black press gave extensive coverage to the event.) Nor is there mention of the Lincoln visit in any of the major Einstein biographies or archives.
In fact, many significant details are missing from the numerous studies of Einstein’s life and work, most of them having to do with Einstein’s opposition to racism and his relationships with African Americans.]
Scientists have discovered a carnivorous plant that grows prey-trapping contraptions underground,feeding off subterranean creatures such as worms, larvae and beetles.
The newly found species of pitcher plant was unearthed in the Indonesian province of North Kalimantan, on the island of Borneo. Like other pitcher plants, Nepenthes pudica has modified leaves, known as pitfall traps or pitchers, that its prey fall into before being consumed. (One species is so large it can trap rats.)
No other species of pitcher plant known to sciencecatches its prey underground. The plant forms specialized underground shoots with small, white, chlorophyll-free leaves, the researchers said. The pitchers are much larger than the leaves and have a reddish color.
“This species places its up-to-11-cm-long (4.3-inch-long)pitchers underground, where they are formed in cavities or directly in the soil and trap animals living underground, usually ants, mites and beetles,” saidlead study author Martin Dančák of PalackýUniversity Olomouc, Czech Republic, in a news release.
Only three other groups of carnivorous plants are known to trap underground prey, but they all use very different trapping mechanisms and, unlike Nepenthes pudica, can catch only minuscule organisms, the researchers said.
There are, of course, a few truly vampiric animals, including leeches, lampreys and vampire bats. And in all these cases the vampire’s intent is to draw enough blood for sustenance, but not enough to kill the host.
But what about human vampires? There are certainly many self-identified vampires who participate in gothic-inspired subcultures. Some host vampire-themed book clubs or secret bloodletting rituals; others wear capes or get vampire-fang dental implants. It’s all frightening and fun, but blood drinking is another matter entirely. The problem is that blood is toxic; because it is so rich in iron — and because the human body has difficulty excreting excess iron — anyone who consumes blood regularly runs a real risk of haemochromatosis (iron overdose), which can cause a wide variety of diseases and problems, including liver and nervous system damage.
In one form or another, vampires have been part of human culture and folklore in different forms for millennia, and the bloodsuckers show no signs of going away any time soon.
ATWA is the acronym for Air Trees Water Animals. It is a name for all life on Earth, and represents the human quest to live in balance with our planet’s life-support systems.
ATWA has its roots in the hills of Kentucky, USA, when people living on the land took a stand against industrial “progress” in the 1930’s. Today that struggle and thought is alive in passionate and committed people throughout the world.
There is a war being waged upon Life. ATWA is a unified movement to re-direct human efforts of war towards the problem. War on the problem, war on pollution – not war on life.
Everyone helping with ATWA is doing so on a volunteer basis.
ATWA is a California 501(c)(3) Non-Profit Organization, and we are increasing our efforts to redeem the planet through tree and seed-planting projects, public outreach and education, and networking with like-minded organizations.
Charles Manson founded the word ATWA. His vision of life on Earth has inspired many people worldwide to learn about living in balance with the planet. For over 43 years, Manson has tirelessly spoken out against the destructive actions of industrial society.
Lynette Fromme (Red) and Sandra Good (Blue), along with Charles Manson, have been warning society of the dangers of pollution and environmental destruction for decades. Red and Blue are the cornerstones of a real no-compromise ecological movement.
In 1975, Red was convicted of attempting to assassinate then President Gerald Ford. She was sentenced to life in prison. After serving 34 years, she was released in August of 2009.
In 1976, Blue was convicted of conspiracy to mail threatening letters and “issuing threatening communications through interstate commerce”. She served ten years.
“You can’t stop war, but you can redirect it. You can redirect it to the problem. The problem is pollution.”
~ Charles Manson
An interview with Charles Manson, Lynette Fromme, and Sandra Good from 2011.
Can you tell those who don’t otherwise know about ATWA it’s goals, outlooks and purposes.
CHARLES MANSON: Survival.
SANDRA GOOD: ATWA stands for Air, Trees. Water, Animals. It’s also for All The Way Alive. ATWA is your survival on earth. You are either working for ATWA – life – or you’re working for death. Fix it and live or run from it and die. As Manson woke up, he brought everyone at the ranch into the thought of one world, one mind, one peace on earth. He wrote, “I won’t sell my Soul 4 it’s for ATWA. That’s the only way life on earth can be alive. The will of God is life. Get in God’s will or die. Die can be done in the mind’s thought pattern and new life can be brought in focus.”
LYNETTE FROMME: ATWA means whatever is necessary to sustain the natural balance of air, trees, water, and animals for the whole planet (and therefore the people who can live within that balance). Most individuals have always thought themselves not big enough or significant enough to have an effect on the whole planet, a notion which conversely made them think they could afford big arrogance and big greed over its resources. Some people now know how seriously and negatively the mass of people already have affected the planet, and that in order to live and die with any respect for ourselves we’ll need to think simply enough to see the big picture, to order and accept the order of whatever is necessary for its survival. Each person must work literally for his or her own life. While this would not always be easy, it would always he meaningful, worthwhile, satisfying, spiritual, and leading to the peace of knowing LIFE before you die.
Are you familiar with, or in contact with the more radical environmental groups – Earth First!, Sea Shepherds, ALYNETTE FROMME, etc?
CHARLES MANSON: We started the root thoughts for most or a lot.
LYNETTE FROMME: We aren’t part of a group. We’re related to air, trees, water, and animals. Groups I’ve seen perpetuate the paperwork to sustain themselves. “Environmental groups” get a name, a following, and, if they’re not mean enough, a lot of politically, racially, and sexually motivated people take over their forums. The word “environment” itseLynette Fromme has a technical sound implying some place out there away from where we are. Point blank: you can live about seven to ten minutes without air, about seven to ten days without water, about seven to ten weeks without food. Trees and vegetation make air. Animals – the entire spectrum of creatures commonly called ‘animals ‘- fertilize, aerate, pollinate, clean, and give land and water its vitality and health.
How does ATWA perceive a change coming?
CHARLES MANSON: Do or die.
SANDRA GOOD: Get out of the Hollywood-media brainwash. Get back to the ground. Do what you can to get Manson his rights in a court of law. He was denied his constitutional right to defend himseLynette Fromme. As his rights were taken, so will your rights be taken. The truth has been covered up to the loss of earth and all who want to live. Rise above woman’s fear and confusion. Recognize your brother/soul seLynette Fromme.
LYNETTE FROMME: Through all its perceivers.
A mutual acquaintance who works for the military was commenting that ATWA felt great change would come via that avenue. Is this correct? If so, how?
CHARLES MANSON: Center of all law is life and must be survival. Law and all order starts from life – one life to live or all life will do its end on Earth. People get one new thought from us and run with it, distort, twist it and $. Computer read outs.
SANDRA GOOD: Yes, historically the military represents on some levels the highest development of the human mind. The US military comes from my ancestors’ mind. I am descended from John Paul Jones, the father of the US Navy. I grew up in a Navy town. Manson was born on Veteran’s Day, November l l, 1934. His grandfather served In World War One, his dad in World War Two. Manson has done more than 47 years in reformatories, jails, and prisons which were staffed mostly by ex-servicemen. CHARLES MANSON has said, “I live in the uniform. I’ve lived there all my life.” Another time he said. “I believe my brother is a veteran, that he fought for me, he gave me his life, and I think the graveyards are full of my brothers.”
There is a chain of command in the military that is based on motions and truth, honor and loyalty. Men in uniform understand the brotherhood whereas in civilian life today honor and loyalty seem to be extinct. The main reason for the killings in 1969 was for love of brother, to get a brother out of jail. Lynette Fromme has served 20 years because of her efforts to get Manson a trialwith rights and to call attention to the fact that the country is out of order and that ATWA is dying. I served ten years in federal prison for similar reasons. As a woman I can’t really answer this question adequately, but I do know first hand something of loyalty, honor, and sacrifice.
There is much wrong with the military today, starting with the chain of command all the way to the top. The bureaucrats and military are two different things. If you had a king the military could work better. You’re looking at a bad military because you’re looking at a bad bunch of sneaky politicians who are selling the military. They have been selling the country. But when you get a king you can’t sell the country because if you’re selling the country you’re selling the king. The king is the mind, the king is the life. If you beat the king you beat yourseLynette Fromme because you are the king. Each man is his own king. Put all your kings together in one symbolic king and then you have to do whatever that one says. If you don’t do what that one says you’re going to lose it all. Falling back to the bureaucratical system we have won’t get it. Democracy ain’t shit. Everyone says it’s working because the people who are rich are telling them to say that. It’s been falling down for years. They’ve been selling it, but that doesn’t change the military because the military is nothing but procedure. The military is NOW. It runs on now, on orders, and these orders should be in the will of god and not held in civilian courts which are a bunch of political B. S. You figure that the President of the United States stands the uniform up to attention, the King of England stands all the English soldiers up to attention – other leaders do the same. Then you imagine Manson is ten times that in real authority, in experience and truth and will for life. When people get to that their heads can’t deal with it and it’s too heavy. In short, we get Manson his rights, we allow him his authority,and we win the war on pollution or we will all perish. The US military has the potential to win any war as long as its chain of command is intact and in the truth.
LYNETTE FROMME: The change logically becomes military because military powers are meant to be used for the preservation and defense of a homeland. The homeland now is the whole planet. Individual groups — again political, racial and sexual — would argue forever and die without clean water and air, life and death would continue to become a tightening noose of seLynette Frommeish concerns choking off any comfort, peace, and quality that technology may have offered. Without quality of humanity, the rest is a scrap heap.
It seems as though many people are sympathetic with ATWA. Do you think our days are reflectivc of the late 60’s? Lots of interest, a small amount of real action, followed by an apathetic tranSandra Goodression into a blind form of acceptance?
CHARLES MANSON: FUCK people they are the problem.
SANDRA GOOD: The movements of the late 60’s/early 70’s were in a large part people selling “revolution”, “peace”, and “love”. The for real people were what the media tagged as “The Manson Family”. That’s why the people who fake for money have for 27 years been covering us up with lies and distortions. A lot of people sell anything they can, including concern for life on earth. Part of my 15 year sentence was for telling all the environmental groups “Quit faking!”. We gave our lives for brother and for ATWA and after all these years none of those groups saw or responded. They can’t see our real because they are fakes. They play all that, “It’s wrong to kill or go to war to save your own life on earth.” I’d say: This is a war on pollution, on the problems, a war for life.
Only the walking dead can be blindly accepting of what’s happening in the world today. Starving Third Worlders who move to First World countries aren’t apathetic of the fact that the quality of life where they came from has been rendered no good. The impact of immigration, added to the damage already ongoing, will mean a growing man-made hell. And the end of life on earth.
People can say that the “enemy” is all that is in the human psyche that sets it against itseLynette Fromme — seLynette Fromme destructiveness: that which moves one to defeat one’s seLynette Fromme, one’s life on earth, one’s peace, one’s love, one’s joy in the experience of living, one’s soul, one’s creativity, one’s children, family, kin, and kind. Millions of trees are cut to print more and more books analyzing the human condition and how to deal with the worldwide breakdown of order, health and sanity. More cups, posters and shirts are sold showing what has and is becoming extinct. You can name the human condition however you will — alienated, wrongly conditioned, inherently good or evil, in need of… etc. There are countless people to tell us what is wrong and to sell us their physical, metaphysical, or spiritual cures. You can attempt to stave off the creeping poisoning of one’s own body. Air and water are life. If your air and water are full of the emissions of millions of cars and factories, your life is poisoned. So you can try all kinds of things to stave off the nightmare that each knows in his soul is growing worse each day — a world with no order, no leadership, no trees, 100’s of millions of cars, brown, smelly skies, and frenzied two-legged creatures mindlessly ravaging the earth till there’s nothing left.
LYNETTE FROMME: Because people need reassurance from other people, people fail. Doubt and fear destroy the best instincts. Anything done with ATWA in mind needs no reassurance. But to keep from having everyone running helter skelter, there is natural leadership. Natural order is not up for debate. It exists independent of our thinking and is as physical a reality as gravity.
It seems as though CHARLES MANSON is reappearing in the public again quite a bit recently. Could this gain support for ATWA if put out where everyone can see it (or maybe they don’t want to see it)?
SANDRA GOOD: If people can’t see by now that their own lives on earth are dying each day in the air and water, in the trees and in the wildlife, then they are truly the walking dead and nothing will wake them up. Let the dead bury the dead. The mass of people are sheep and move whichever way the money or the biggest fear tells them to move. When air and water get bad enough people will do as they are told. It doesn’t matter what people think. It’s what is. Do you want to live? Then fix your air and water. Save your trees and wildlife. Those who war upon any part of nature are warring upon themselves and their children. ATWA is ATWAR with pollution. ATWA is a revolution against pollution. ATWA is a holy war.
LYNETTE FROMME: Manson is new thought, old soul, and still right.
What is ATWA’s view on the population explosion? What can be done to stop the weeds?
CHARLES MANSON: Survive at all cost. When it comes to the dead heads there is no game no slack, not an act: real or death will be a reality.
SANDRA GOOD: It is impossible for the natural resources of the planet to sustain the burgeoning human population. Even if lifestyles were to change worldwide to have minimal impact on ATWA the sheer numbers cannot be supported. What can be done to stop the weeds? Chemical spraying, widespread and intensive, has been going on for decades. I was in federal prison for ten years because I warned of the consequences of such pervasive poisoning. I warned that cancers and all kinds of social breakdown would be epidemic as a result of pollution. So you see, peoples’ own death wishes are taking care of some of the population problem. However, laws in accord with need for survival will have to be made and enforced. Such laws will not be forthcoming from the ball-less money minds that call themselves public servants. The destruction of ATWA and over- population are world problems and must he dealt with on a world level in a world court.
LYNETTE FROMME: Many animals, by God, reproduce and care for what the food and water supply will support. If they can do it we can do it.
Elephants and their forebears were pushed into wipeout by waves of extreme global environmental change, rather than overhunting by early humans, according to new research.
The study, published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, challenges claims that early human hunters slaughtered prehistoric elephants, mammoths and mastodonts to extinction over millennia. Instead, its findings indicate the extinction of the last mammoths and mastodonts at the end of the last Ice Age marked the end of progressive climate-driven global decline among elephants over millions of years.
Although elephants today are restricted to just three endangered species in the African and Asian tropics, these are survivors of a once far more diverse and widespread group of giant herbivores, known as the proboscideans, which also include the now completely extinct mastodonts, stegodonts and deinotheres. Only 700,000 years ago, England was home to three types of elephants: two giant species of mammoths and the equally prodigious straight-tusked elephant.
An international group of palaeontologists from the universities of Alcalá, Bristol, and Helsinki, piloted the most detailed analysis to date on the rise and fall of elephants and their predecessors, which examined how 185 different species adapted, spanning 60 million years of evolution that began in North Africa. To probe into this rich evolutionary history, the team surveyed museum fossil collections across the globe, from London’s Natural History Museum to Moscow’s Paleontological Institute. By investigating traits such as body size, skull shape and the chewing surface of their teeth, the team discovered that all proboscideans fell within one of eight sets of adaptive strategies.
“Remarkably for 30 million years, the entire first half of proboscidean evolution, only two of the eight groups evolved,” said Dr Zhang Hanwen, study coauthor and Honorary Research Associate at the University of Bristol’s School of Earth Sciences.
“Most proboscideans over this time were nondescript herbivores ranging from the size of a pug to that of a boar. A few species got as big as a hippo, yet these lineages were evolutionary dead-ends. They all bore little resemblance to elephants.”
The course of proboscidean evolution changed dramatically some 20 million years ago, as the Afro-Arabian plate collided into the Eurasian continent. Arabia provided crucial migration corridor for the diversifying mastodont-grade species to explore new habitats in Eurasia, and then into North America via the Bering Land Bridge.
“The immediate impact of proboscidean dispersals beyond Africa was quantified for the very first time in our study,” said lead author Dr Juan Cantalapiedra, Senior Research Fellow at the University of Alcalá in Spain.
“Those archaic North African species were slow-evolving with little diversification, yet we calculated that once out of Africa proboscideans evolved 25 times faster, giving rise to a myriad of disparate forms, whose specialisations permitted niche partition between several proboscidean species in the same habitats. One case in point being the massive, flattened lower tusks of the ‘shovel-tuskers’. Such coexistence of giant herbivores was unlike anything in today’s ecosystems.”
By 3 million years ago the elephants and stegodonts of Africa and eastern Asia seemingly emerged victorious in this unremitting evolutionary ratchet. However, environmental disruption connected to the coming Ice Ages hit them hard, with surviving species forced to adapt to the new, more austere habitats. The most extreme example was the woolly mammoth, with thick, shaggy hair and big tusks for retrieving vegetation covered under thick snow.
The team’s analyses identified final proboscidean extinction peaks starting at around 2.4 million years ago, 160,000 and 75,000 years ago for Africa, Eurasia and the Americas, respectively.
“It is important to note that these ages do not demarcate the precise timing of extinctions, but rather indicate the points in time at which proboscideans on the respective continents became subject to higher extinction risk,” said Dr Cantalapiedra.
Unexpectedly, the results do not correlate with the expansion of early humans and their enhanced capabilities to hunt down megaherbivores.
French feminist Françoise d’Eaubonne coined the term “ecofeminism” in 1974 for a new branch of feminism that focused on ecology, the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. It holds that the domination and degradation of nature and the exploitation and oppression of women have significant connections.
Several environmental disasters in the US—most notably the 1979 near meltdown at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania—brought 600 women together in 1980 for “Women and Life on Earth,” the first ecofeminist conference. Held in Massachusetts during the spring equinox, the conference explored the links between feminism, militarization, healing, and ecology. Ecofeminism was defined as a “women-identified movement” that sees Earth’s devastation and the threat of nuclear annihilation as feminist concerns because they are underpinned by the same “masculinist mentality” that oppresses women. Ecofeminism holds that women have a special role to play in protecting the environment and campaigning against damage to the planet.
As ecofeminism developed, it began to splinter into different approaches, one of which is sometimes described as cultural ecofeminism. This strand is rooted in spirituality, goddess worship, and nature-based religions. Its adherents, including American writer and activist Starhawk (Miriam Simos), argue that women have an intrinsic kinship with the natural environment, and, as instinctive carers, should be at the forefront of its protection. Other feminists criticize this approach for reinforcing gender stereotypes, claiming women’s moral superiority, and taking little account of class, race, or the economic exploitation of resources.